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AND (Narrowing your search results)

Using the sample question:

How do you motivate employees in times of organizational change?

We would want to look for resources that contain both of the terms:

change, employees

Because we want both terms to appear in each of our search results, it is sometimes useful to connect them with "AND" when we enter them into the search tool. With tools such as Google and Google Scholar and Discovery, this AND is implied - you do not need to type it in - but with other tools such as databases on the EBSCO platform, you do need to add this word in.

change AND employees

This will tell the search tool to find citations that contain both of these words.  It will not find records that contain only one of these words.

If you find you are still getting too many results in your searches, consider narrowing your search further by adding another search term using AND.  For example:

change AND employees AND motivation

Variations:  AND, and, &, +

Complex search strings: Using both AND and OR

You can express complex search ideas by using both AND and OR.  For example, you can combine the above searches into one "search string" as follows:

change AND (employees OR staff OR personnel) AND (organizational OR organisational)

The results of the above search must contain:

  • the term: change
  • one of the terms: employee, staff, personnel
  • one of the terms: organizational, organisational